Citizenship is the allegiance of an individual to a particular state. The person owes loyalty to this state and is accorded certain privileges and protection by the state. The majority of individuals are legal citizens of one or more nations, which grants them specific privileges and rights. Citizens fulfil commitments to their government for the protection of their critical interests.
‘Aliens’ is a state of citizens of one country living in another country. Political treaties and other laws of a particular country in which they reside dictate their rights and responsibilities.
The number of citizenships an individual can have depends on the laws of the country. Every country has certain laws regarding the number of citizenships a person is entitled to have. However, India does not grant dual or multiple citizenships. Therefore, a person can have only one citizenship in India.
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Types of citizenship In India
- Place of birth: Citizenship of the country in which the person is born.
- By Descent: Nationality can pass through generations. Children can inherit nationality from their parents.
By naturalisation: If a person has been a resident of India for 12 years and satisfies the requirements prescribed in the Citizenship Act’s third schedule, he or she is eligible for citizenship by naturalisation.
The person should be a resident in India for the immediately preceding 12 months from the date of the application. The person should be resident of India for 11 years in the aggregate 14 years preceding the 12 months.
- By way of investment: People who contribute to a country’s economy by investment or donation may be granted citizenship.
Multiple citizenships in India and other countries
The Indian constitution prohibits dual citizenship in India (holding Indian citizenship and citizenship of another country). Citizenship in multiple countries has become more prevalent, and dual citizenship can occur by different laws rather than by choice.
Most governments prevent dual citizenship by requiring individuals to relinquish citizenship of the country of their origin and by stripping citizenship from emigrants who became naturalised citizens of other countries. However, exceptions are made in such policies.
The increased mobility, ability of children to gain citizenship not just of their father but also of their mother, emergence of new norms and human rights standards, and changing legislation have resulted in increased incidences of dual citizenship.
Citizenship in a globalised world
Globalisation has forced the evolution of citizenship as membership and identification in a single nation-state. Countries granting dual citizenship and non-citizen rights have made obtaining citizenship less of a priority.
Furthermore, migrants’ transnational activity diminished the importance of national citizenship. ALthough national connections matter, they aren’t always paramount in many people’s experiences.
By contrast, the rise of nativism has revived debates on national identity and loyalty to a single state due to globalisation and fears of terrorism-related immigration. The implications of these changes for states and immigrants have attracted considerable research attention.
Global citizenship comprises a set of common values and a sense of shared duty. Global people recognise that global and remote events considerably affect local events and vice versa. They advocate human rights before any national legislation or identity and maintain equality among all people.
Global citizenship values include diversity, interconnectedness, empathy, and perspective. Global citizens embody these ideals and are uniquely positioned to contribute in various settings locally, nationally, and worldwide without harming one society to benefit another. They encourage international understanding and foster it.
Individuals, corporations, global nomads, young and old people, big and small persons, for-profit and non-profit, public and private, introverts and extroverts, men and women, children and anybody in between are eligible for global citizenship.
Leaders promoting shared values and corporate citizens whose governance, ethics, business model, and investment strategy contributes to the economy are highly valued global assets and particular proponents of global citizenry.
Renunciation and termination of Indian citizenship
An individual can renunciate and terminate Indian citizenship under the following circumstances:
When a person who is also an Indian citizen or a citizen of another country declares he is renouncing his Indian citizenship.
If such a statement is made during a war involving India, registration is postponed until the Central government directs otherwise.
- Every minor child of a person who renounces Indian citizenship relinquishes Indian citizenship unless the child declares his intention to resume Indian citizenship and become a citizen of India within a year of reaching full age.
- If a citizen of India willingly acquires the citizenship of another nation, he ceases to be a citizen of India.
This clause does not apply to an Indian citizen who obtains the citizenship of another country engaging freely with India.
Global media is focused on cultivating a sense of global duty rather than accountability for specific locations. Therefore, we should consider whether a sense of global citizenship is a historically unique concept that is not dependent on competition between global citizens and others.
Renunciation, termination, or deprivation of citizenship results in the loss of citizenship. The act ensures that the procedures relating to citizenship are protected. Legislation such as the Citizenship Act of 1955 and the Citizenship Amendment Bill of 2019 has been amended appropriately over time.
Although some migrants living in other countries will identify more with one society due to globalisation, the majority appear to maintain several identities that link them to more than one nation at the same time, which results in a hybrid cultural phenomenon.
How many citizenships can we have in India?
Only one citizenship
What is Dual citizenship?
Dual citizenship refers to a person's ability to hold multiple nationalities of two countries, which provides the individual with country-specific privileges and rights.
Is Dual Citizenship allowed in India?
The Indian constitution prohibits dual or multiple citizenships.
What is renunciation?
Any Indian citizen who is also a citizen of another country who renounces his Indian citizenship through a declaration in an authorised manner ceases to be an Indian citizen.
What is Termination?
Indian citizens withdraw their citizenship if a person adopts citizenship of another country knowingly or voluntarily.