Electronic governance or e-Governance is the use of technology and electronic communication for administration of government services to provide a simple, moral, accountable, responsive, and transparent (SMART) governance.
The National E-Governance Plan (NEGP) 2006 is one of the prominent efforts to bolster e-Governance in India. The plan enables citizens to conveniently and efficiently use government services. The central, state, and local governments provide citizen centre services electronically through NEGP.
Table of Contents
What is e-Governance?
e-Governance is the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to boost the efficiency and transparency of government operations and services to supply public services. e-Governance can be a bridge between the citizens and government and administrative processes.
In e-governance, digital platforms, internet, and electronic technologies are effectively leveraged to provide quality governance and ensure people’s participation in the governing process.
e-Governance in India
e-Governance is a government initiative to make India a digitally advanced nation with digital access, inclusion in governance, and empowerment. India is one of the leading countries in e-Governance. The focus has shifted from initiatives to extending the reach of digital governance to impact people on a large scale.
e-Governance is essential for spreading the benefits of economic growth through digitalisation to all segments of society.
The Indian government sponsors and initiates many digital programs to promote e-governance and provide digital service delivery, such as e-Seva, e-Court, e-Office, and e-District.
Origin of e-Governance
e-Governance originated in 1970 and focused on government application in defence, economic monitoring, and positioning of ICT to control data in census, tax administration, and other fields.
Initial steps in e-Governance
- The establishment of the Department of Electronics in 1970 was the first step for e-governance in India to focus on information and communication.
- The National Information Centre (NIC) launched an information system to computerise district offices.
- The launch of the National Informatics Centre Network (NICNET) in 1987— a national satellite-based computer network was a prominent step towards e-governance.
Types of Interactions in e-Governance
To improve the supply of government services, e-Governance includes the following four major types of interactions.
1: Government to Citizen (G2C)
In the government-to-citizen (G2C) initiative, the government provides services and access to citizens. G2C includes web-based interfaces allowing citizens to apply for licences and pay taxes.
Citizens can share their views and grievances on government policies anytime and from anywhere.
Additionally, e-governance can ensure easy issuance of certificates, job cards, passports, ration cards, bill payments, and tax filing. The key goals of G2C include the equitable provision of information for all, acceptance of citizen feedback, and enhancement of welfare services.
2: Government to Businesses (G2B)
G2B involves services that the government provides to businesses. G2B includes online tools for businesses to register and apply for licences. G2B eliminates red-tapism, saves money and time, and improves business transparency.
G2B is primarily focused on the following issues:
- E-taxation, obtaining a government licence
- Safe electronic transactions
- The government’s policy of working with businesses has been included.
3: Government to Government (G2G)
G2G interaction involves sharing information or services within governmental organisational—central, state, and local governments.
Using the following IT tools enables government entities to be more effective and efficient:
- Live fingerprint verification and scanning
- Electronic report and paperwork entry
4: Government to Employees (G2E)
G2E deals with how the government provides employees with services and information. The interaction is a two-way process between the organisation and the employee. Therefore, ICT tools increase the satisfaction level of employees.
The G2E model refers to the distribution of information and services from the government to its citizens, and from its citizens to the government through the following:
- e-Learning techniques
- Personnel consolidation
- Knowledge sharing among employees
Objectives of e-Governance
1: Transparency and Accountability
e-Governance makes managing and controlling government activity simple by digitising processes and making information available. Additionally, e-Governance reduces corruption and increases citizen participation.
2: Encourage Citizen Participation
Being user-friendly and the online accessibility to government information let citizens participate in the decision-making process. e-Governance allows services to be more convenient and responsive to the needs of the citizens.
3: Cost Saving and Resource Optimisation
e-Governance lowers administrative expenses and improves resources. Therefore, the government can use these savings to allocate resources to health care, education, or any other required area.
e-Governance in the Indian Context
In India, e-governance has been used in the following primary aspects:
Enable every Indian to have an Aadhar card, with an Aadhar number. The 12-digit biometric identity number secures authentication for government services.
2: Digital Signature
The digital signature ensures secure online transactions by signing the documents digitally.
3: Digital India
Digital India is a flagship initiative that focuses on infrastructure, digital literacy, and service delivery. It aims to transform India into a knowledge-based society.
4: Policy Making
MyGov is a platform for citizen participation in which the input of users is considered in policy-making, which supports government projects.
5: Mobile Governance
To make it easier for people to obtain services and participate in government activities, the government has created many mobile applications, including the m-Seva App store, which has 1200 live applications providing access to various government services.
e-Governance is key to a responsible and interactive government and public. The latest announcements and guidelines issued by the government can reach the remotest parts of the country in no time, rendering the process as easy as ever.
e-Governance opened a parallel system that enabled the government and the public to interact in person. The pace to achieve digital governance is slow but steady. e-Governance will transform and replace the conventional processes and provide India with a digitally governed and efficient governance system.
What was the first initiative in the evolution of e-Governance?
The establishment of the Department of Electronics in 1970 was the first significant step towards the evolution of e-Governance in India was
How many types of e-Governance exist?
e-Government services are of the following four categories:
- Government-to-Citizen (G2C)
- Government-to-Business (G2B)
- Government-to-Employee (G2E)
- Government-to-Government (G2G).
How does e-governance contribute to development?
e-Governance helps in internal operations and connection to the global environment and its function in promoting economic progress and social stability.
Why is e-Governance necessary?
e-Governance enables citizens to use government services online, improve the delivery of government services, and comply with government regulations.